Volume 27, Issue 158 (3-2018)                   J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2018, 27(158): 218-229 | Back to browse issues page

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Zazouli M A, Kalankesh L R. Indicators and Causes of Environmental Health Inequalities. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci. 2018; 27 (158) :218-229
URL: http://jmums.mazums.ac.ir/article-1-10786-en.html
Abstract:   (2136 Views)
Environmental health inequalities (EHIs) refer to general differences in environmental health conditions. This research aimed at introducing the EHI indicators and providing general recommendations that could improve environmental health and reduce the inequalities observed.This research is the review of WHO reports in various regions. A set of 14 EHI indicators was developed and categorized into three inequality dimensions, including housing-related inequalities, group injury-related inequalities, and environment-related inequalities. The environment-related inequalities include four indicators such as lack of access to green/recreational areas, and noise exposure and second-hand smoke exposure at home or work. The housing-related inequalities include six indicators such as inadequate water supply, lack of a flush toilet, lack of a bath or shower, overcrowding, dampness in home, and inability to keep the home adequately warm. According to literature, EHIs exist in all countries, and most often affect disadvantaged population groups. The magnitude of inequalities and the distribution of inequalities varies between countries and also depend on the socioeconomic or demographic variables. The socioeconomic and demographic inequalities in exposure to environmental hazards exist everywhere and could be associated with factors that may affect the risk of being exposed such as income, education, employment, age, sex, race/ethnicity, and specific locations or settings. In addition to these differences in exposure, environmental health inequalities are also caused by social or demographic differences in vulnerability towards certain risks. Finally, further studies are recommended for initial assessment of EHIs in Iran.
 
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Type of Study: Review | Subject: Environmental Health

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