Volume 25, Issue 133 (2-2016)                   J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2016, 25(133): 295-304 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Asgari Rad H, Saeedi M, AzadBakht N. Heavy Metals (Cadmium, Zinc, Nickel, Chrome, Lead, and Copper) Contamination in Kohl Available in Iran’s Market. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2016; 25 (133) :295-304
URL: http://jmums.mazums.ac.ir/article-1-6968-en.html
Abstract:   (6983 Views)

Background and purpose: Exposure to heavy metals can cause neurological, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders, imbalance of hormones, hair loss, infertility, and abortion. Kohl containing heavy metals can lead to such complications due to long-term contact with the lining of the eye. The aim of this study was to investigate the contamination level of Kohl by heavy metals (cadmium, zinc, nickel, chrome, lead, and copper) used in some Iranian cities.

Materials and methods: Thirty samples of Kohl were prepared from 10 brands available in Iran’s market. The samples were digested by perchloric and nitric acid. Concentration of heavy metals were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

Results: The highest concentrations measured in samples from Kohl with mean ± SD included: cadmium  2350 ± 20, chrome 2270 ± 240, lead 61900 ± 1900, nickel 3380 ± 210, zink 16190 ± 120, copper 36240 ± 250  (ng per gram) in Kohl samples. The lowest concentrations were observed with cadmium (2 ± 0.002), chrome (2 ± 0.002), lead (341 ± 0.8), nickel (3 ± 0.4), zink (1100 ± 40), and copper (9 ± 0.8 ng per gram) in all samples. The concentrations of cadmium, zinc, nickel, chrome, lead, and copper in all samples were within the range suggested by WHO.

Conclusion: High levels of heavy metals in noncertified Kohl are a warning. Therefore, constant vigilance is needed to ensure that allowable level of heavy metals is used in this product. Therefore, heavy metals concentration in Kohl should be determined before entering the market.

Full-Text [PDF 663 kb]   (6345 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research(Original) | Subject: Pharmacognosy

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb